Warlike, nomadic people from the Eurasian steppe (q.v.) who appeared on Byzantium's (q.v.) northern frontier in the late ninth century. They moved westward from the Volga, perhaps under pressure from the Uzes (q.v.), driving the Magyars (q.v.) beyond the Dnieper, then settling between the Don and lower Danube (q.v.). They were organized into eight tribes, and they had no king. They were often enemies of Bulgaria and the Rus (qq.v.), which usually suited Byzantine interests; for example, they killed Svjatoslav (q.v.), Byzantium's Rus adversary, in 972. They also served as mercenaries in Byzantine armies. Thus, the Pechenegs helped to stabilize Byzantium's northern frontier. However, in 1047 they became a direct threat when a new horde of Pechenegs crossed the Danube to plunder Thrace (q.v.). In 1053, a 30-year truce was arranged that accepted Pecheneg settlement south of the Danube. Nevertheless, raids into Thrace followed in 1078 and 1087; the 1087 raid included Uzes and Cumans (q.v.). The Pecheneg problem was solved temporarily by Alexios I Komnenos (q.v.), who nearly wiped them out at the battle of Mount Lebounion in 1091. The remnants were resettled and found work as mercenaries in Alexios I's armies. A final wave of Pechenegs met the same end in 1122. Crossing the Danube, they pillaged Macedonia (q.v.) and Thrace before being defeated by John II (q.v.), who instituted an annual day of celebration to commemorate his victory.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pechenegs — The Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Turkish: Peçenekler , Hungarian: Besenyő , Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται, Latin: Pacinacae , Bisseni /in Hungarian diplomas) were a semi nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian… …   Wikipedia

  • Pechenegs — ▪ people Byzantine  Patzinakoi , Latin  Bisseni , Hungarian  Besenyo        a seminomadic, apparently Turkic people who occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea (8th–12th century) and by the 10th century were in control of the lands between… …   Universalium

  • Печенеги — (Pechenegs)Pechenegs, народ, обитавший в степях Центральной Азии и сев. Приаралья, который завоевал территорию между Доном и Дунаем в 10в., но потерпел поражение от Киевской Руси в 1036г …   Страны мира. Словарь

  • Hungarian prehistory — See Pannonian basin before Hungary for the prehistory of Hungary (as opposed to the prehistory of the Hungarian people). The Tree of Life on an ancient Magyar sabertache (tarsoly) plate Hungarian prehistory (Hungarian: magyar őstörténet) refers… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Beroia — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Beroia partof=the Komnenian restoration caption=Emperor John II Komnenos, commander of the Byzantine forces in the battle. date=1122 place=Beroia (today Stara Zagora), Bulgaria casus= territory= result …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Levounion — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Levounion partof=the Komnenian restoration and Byzantine Seljuk Wars caption=Painting of Alexios I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library. date=April 29 1091 place=Levounion (near Enos, modern …   Wikipedia

  • Bulgarian-Hungarian Wars — Infobox Military Conflict conflict = Bulgarian Hungarian Wars caption = date = 9th 14th century place = Northern and Western Balkans territory = Both states had numerous territorial changes result = Inconclusive combatant1 = combatant2 =… …   Wikipedia

  • Sviatoslav I of Kiev — (Old East Slavic: С тославъ (Свąтославъ) [E.g. in the Primary Chronicle under year 970 ] Игорєвичь ( Sventoslavŭ Igorevichǐ ), Russian: ru. Святослав Игоревич, Ukrainian: uk. Святослав Ігорович, Bulgarian …   Wikipedia

  • Khazars — Kazar redirects here. For the Marvel Comics character, see Ka Zar. For the village in Azerbaijan, see Xəzər. For Khazar University, see Khazar University. Khazaria Eastern Tourkia Khaganate …   Wikipedia

  • Alexios I Komnenos — Infobox Monarch name =Alexios I Komnenos title =Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire reign =4 April, 1081 – 15 August, 1118 coronation =4 April, 1081 predecessor =Nicephorus III Botaneiates successor =John II Comnenus spouse 1 =Irene Ducaena issue …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”